4. CULTURAL & HISTORICAL HERITAGES

MONGOLIAN HISTORY: THE KYRGYZ PERIOD (MID-9TH CENTURY – 11TH CENTURIES)

Originally from the headwaters of the Yenisei River, which flows north to the Arctic Ocean from southern Siberia due west of Mongolia’s Lake Hovsgol region, Kyrgyz were a pastoral people of Turkic origin who also engaged in hunting and fishing. They were particularly well known for their metallurgy. But as a small tribe, they were always subject to larger confederations from the Xiongnu period onwards. When they revolted against the constant depredations of the uyghurs in 840, they rapidly expanded southwards through the western part of today’s Mongolia to the Tien Shan mountains of Xinjiang and eastern Turkestan, which they dominated for 200 years.

Although they’re successfully overthrown the Uyghurs, they exercised only nominal control over their former empire, especially in the east. What power and influence they held was eventually crushed by the expanding Khitan, who were pushing west from eastern Mongolia. Today, many of their descendants live in Tuva, an autonomous Russian republic across Mongolia’s northwestern border. Others, driven by the Mongol Empire, migrated southwards where they now form the majority of Kytgyzstan’s population.

Resource: Carl Robinson "Mongolia Nomad Empire of Eternal Blue Sky"