This Uighar capital ruin founded in 751 is situated on east bank
of the Orkhon River 15km northeast from Khotont Soum, Arkhangai Aimag. After
Uighar’s victory over Turkic empire in 745, Peilo became a new king of Uighar.
After his death his son Moyunchur became Uighar king. During his reign, Uighar
experienced the most flourishing time of its history and established the capital,
Ordubalik, in Orkhon river valley.
Although over 10 cities had been established during Uighar period,
only two ruins of them (Ordubalik and Baibalik) were remained today. This city
was a fortified castle and one of main trade centers in Central Asia where
Silk Road passes through. Ordubalik and Karakorum had been controlling northern
branch of the Silk Road for over 400 years. Study on this city ruins proved
that there were a state house, a state ministry, a cottage industry, trade
districts, a religious temple, a fortified castle, a horse shed and a military
warehouse in the city which stretches southwardly over 25km.
Decorated royal house remains were found inside the fortress
during the expedition. In front of the fortress, there were a garden, a temple
worship surrounded by a fortress and steles devoted to Uighar king with an
inscription in Uighar and Chinese script in front of the temple. Many building
traces on western and northwestern section of the city are supposed to be
establishments which have formerly been used for a trade and a handiwork.
Ordubalik was a big city. But, it wasn’t existed more than 100 years. In 840s
Kyrgizs from Yenisei River fired the city. Khar Balgas was not only listed as
an important historical site under state protection in 2002 but also recognized
as a “cultural landscape” of the UNESCO World Heritage in 1996.